There are a multitude of types of olives trees, varieties or olive classes. There are good olive varieties for oil, others are suitable for table olives and finally there are varieties with qualities for both uses.
Currently, the sector’s greatest interest is concentrated in the super high density olive orchard. They are more expensive olive plantations but easy to mechanize and higher productivity.
Older olive varieties have different names or synonyms depending on their cultivation area.
In Spain different types of olive trees are cultivated, the communities with the highest production are Andalucía, Castilla la Mancha, Extremadura, Valencian Community and Catalonia.
The reader has available extended information of each olive variety. You can access it by clicking on the links and pictures available.
Spanish olive varieties
Depending on the climatic conditions and agronomic of our cultivation area, a variety of olive trees can be more or less productive. The disease resistance, moisture, drought and the cultivation for centuries, favor the presence of singular olive tree varieties .
In addition, olive varieties may be suitable for the production of table olives, olive oil or have good characteristics for both uses.
For these reasons, the different Spanish regions have olive classes typical of their area .
Although there are hundreds of kinds of olive trees in Spain, only a few concentrate most of the production of oil and table olives.
In the Spanish olive nurseries, it is possible to buy olive seedlings of an important selection of Spanish and foreign olive varieties.
Types of olive trees in Andalusia
Varieties of table olives ( Manzanilla Sevillana, Hojiblanca, Gordal Sevillana…) are grown, being mainly Seville, Cordoba and Malaga the main producing provinces.
Regarding the olive oil production, the main producing province is Jaén followed by Córdoba, Sevilla, Málaga and Granada.
The following types of olive trees are the most cultivated in Andalusia:
Picual, is the most important olive variety in Spain. It has an area of more than 1,000,000 hectares. It is grown mainly in the province of Jaén, although it also has an important presence in Córdoba, Granada and Sevilla.
Picual is one of the most important kinds of olives for oil.
Its cultivation is increasing in Spain and in the world for being a high yielding olive variety productive. Picual olives have a high fat yield, which allows to obtain greater profitability than other types of olive trees.
The intensive olive groves from much of Spain are committed to planting this excellent olive class.
The Picual olive oil has high oxidation stability and has high amounts of Oleocanthal.
Because of its large olives, Gordal Sevillana, is one of the most appreciated table olive varieties. The largest producing province is Sevilla. Its extension has contracted during the last decades.
This type of olive stands out for its large size and green are harvested for table. Hardly used in olive oil production, fat olives have low yield and poor oxidation stability.
Its olives are prone to wiring, therefore, in order to obtain quality olives, the cooking phase needs to be done (remove bitterness with caustic soda) in a precise and meticulous way. Fat olives are seasoned in various ways and used in the Kimbos production (olives + pickles).
The Gordal olive is sensitive to the attacks of the olive fly.
The variety of Hojiblanca olive is the third most planted in Spain. It has 265,000 hectares of olive groves and stands out for its high resistance to drought.
The province of Córdoba has the largest cultivated area of Hojiblanca olive. In Malaga, Seville and Granada it also represents an important part of olive production.
It is used in table olive production (very good pulp / bone ratio). Because of its firmness, it is highly prized for the production of black table olives. Within the different types of olives to eat, it is currently the most produced in Spain.
In addition, the Hojiblanca olive oil is appreciated for its excellent quality.
Manzanilla Sevillana is one of the varieties of table olives par excellence. Seville is the province of Andalusia with the largest area of Manzanilla Sevillana olive tree.
The Manzanilla olive has reached a degree of international diffusion, for its good characteristics for green olives dressing.
Although it is not their usual use, the olive oil Chamomile is appreciated for its taste, aroma and resistance to oxidation.
The Manzanilla Sevillana olive tree is very sensitive to the Verticilosis.
The Picudo olive, has its origin is the province of Córdoba.
It is a variety of rustic olive of high production, high fatty yield of olives.
Although traditionally it has been used in producing areas as a table olive with good characteristics.
At present, its main destination is the oil mill, where it produces a extra virgin oil with a very appreciated flavor.
The Picudo olive is very sensitive to the Olive leprosy, a negative aspect for use as a table olive.
The Pajarero olive tree receives this name for being its olives very appetizing for the Zorzal. Its main cultivation area is located in the province of Córdoba.
The tree takes time to enter production, but it is finally regular and productive. Its olive is very large in size and high yield. In the mill, it allows us to obtain extra virgin olive oils of excellent quality.
Currently, the variety has a growing interest.
The Royal de Cazorla olive has its origin in the province of Jaén ( Sierra de Cazorla). This variety enjoys a growing importance in its cultivation area, being a unique and appreciated olive oil.
Royal olive oil stands out for its very fruity aroma, being a distinctive essence of the PDO Sierra de Cazorla.
On the other hand, the tree is very rustic, productive, regular and resistant to drought.
Lechin from Granada is an olive variety mainly grown in Granada.
Among the existing olive varieties, Lechin de Granada stands out for its excellent conservation capacity. Therefore, its use as black table olives is highly appreciated.
It can be used both for table olives and for the production of olive oil. In addition, the Lechin olive variety is rustic, adapts well to limestone soils and supports drought better than other varieties.
It is a olive class that is very sensitive to repilo, so it is recommended that it grow in areas with low rainfall.
Ocal is a versatile olive variety, suitable for table olives and olive oil production. It has about 5,000 hectares of olive grove, located mainly in the province of Córdoba.
It produces a well-valued olive oil in Delicatesen stores for its very fruity aroma.
Ocal olive tree has good productive characteristics, its plantation being interesting to differentiate itself from other more abundant olive oils such as Picual and Hojiblanca.
Types of olives trees grown in Castilla-La Mancha
The cultivation of the olive tree in Castilla-La Mancha is mainly destined to the production of olive oil in oil mill.
The use for table olives is testimonial if we compare it with Andalusia and Extremadura.
The province of Ciudad Real is the one that produces more olive oil, followed by Toledo and further by Albacete.
The following olive varieties are the most common in Castilla-La Mancha:
The Cornicabra olive class is the most cultivated in Castilla la Mancha. In Spain it is the second most cultivated olive variety, 270,000 hectares of olive groves are calculated. Its rusticity allows it to adapt perfectly to the dry and limestone climate of Castilla la Mancha, it also manages to overcome the winter cold well.
The long and pointed Cornicabra olives have a high yield. This and the quality of EVOO, make the variety ideal for production of oil in the oil mills.
The D.O.P. Montes de Toledo, Campo de Montiel and Campo de Calatrava support the quality of Cornicabra olive oil.
The Castellana olive variety, also known as Verdeja, is a variety native to Castilla la Mancha. It has 30,000 hectares of olive groves, located mainly in Cuenca and Guadalajara.
Castellana olive oil is protected by the D.O.P. Alcarria oil.
Castellana olive is a variety sensitive to of olive Knot disease.
Different types of olive trees from Extremadura
The different types of olive trees traditional from Extremandura have a mixed use, they can be used for table and olive oil production. In Badajoz, some irrigated crops are being changed to super high density olive grove . Therefore, an increase in olive oil production in Extremadura is expected.
The Manzanilla Cacereña olive tree is a very old olive variety, dated from the 15th century ( North of Cáceres ).
It is a very versatile olive class that stands out for its excellent quality both as a table olive and for producing olive oil.
The Manzanilla olive oil is very fruity and pleasant in taste. Being used by Italian packers in obtaining their best coupages.
The variety of Verdial olive from Badajoz, has an extension of 30,000 hectares of olive groves, mainly located in Extremadura.
The tree stands out for its productivity, regularity and resistance to drought.
Verdial olives are large in size and have a high olive oil content.
It is excellent for producing green table olives and olive oil with high stability and organoleptic quality.
drought-resistant, productive, low-grade, suitable for dressing and oil production (22% yield)
It is quite sensitive to Anthracnose in olives or Anthracnose.
The Morisca olive tree is a very old variety (dated from the 11th century).
In Spain it is located mainly in the province of Badajoz.
Morisca class adapts well to drought and poor lands.
Olives of this variety are very large, being appreciated for green dressing. They have high performance and produce a well-valued oil with a high linoleic content.
Morisca is very sensitive to several of the most important diseases of the olive tree.
The olive tree Cornezuelo, produces an oil recognized and appreciated for its good quality (PDO Monterrubio Oil).
Its cultivation is mainly located in Badajoz and barely represents a small part of the olive grove area in Spain.
The olives are of high yield, large size and have a high resistance to detachment.
The Pico Limón olive variety is expanding due to its good characteristics. Its traditional cultivation area is the southern countryside of Badajoz.
Pico Limón stands out for its high productivity and good quality both for table olives and for producing olive oils of the highest quality.
Its olives are sensitive to the attack of olive moth.
Olive classes of the Valencian Community
The Valencia Community has very old olive classes and an important olive heritage. In some areas ancient olive trees are preserved, whose olive oil is highly appreciated by consumers, and manages to reach considerable sales prices.
The Villalonga olive class is the main one of the Valencian Community. Approximately 28,000 ha of Villalonga olive groves are grown in Valencia, Alicante and Castellón.
Villalonga is a olive class of precocious, productive olive with good characteristics for mechanized harvesting with trunk or umbrella vibrators.
The olives stand out have a high yield, being its main use the production of olive oil.
It stands out for being one of the most resistant olive trees to moisture or root asphyxiation.
The Blanqueta olive class has about 20,000 hectares of olive groves.
The tree is not very vigorous and very productive, interesting qualities in olive grove plantations in hedge.
The olives are very high yield, being their destination the production of olive oil.
It produces an olive oil appreciated for its fruity and sweet taste, however, it has poor oxidative stability.
Farga olive tree has about 20,000 hectares of olive groves, being its main province of Castellón cultivation. Most of the olive groves are centuries-old, there are millenary specimens of this variety.
The olive tree variety Farga have high yield and are destined to oil mill to produce olive oil.
At present it is replacing the variety with more productive and easier collection.
The Alfafara olive variety is very old, it is believed that it was introduced by the Phoenicians in the peninsula.
Its cultivation is mainly located in Alicante and Valencia. It currently has about 6,000 hectares of olive groves in expansion.
It stands out for its good behavior against diseases.
It produces olive oils appreciated for their balanced flavor and good resistance to oxidation.
Changlot Real variety has 5,000 hectares of olive groves, located mainly in the province of Alicante.
The tree has good adaptability to the ground and resists disease well.
Its olives have high yield (24%) and are destined to the mill.
Olives tree varieties typical of Aragon
Although currently the production of olive oil in Aragon hardly accounts for a small part of the total of Spain. The cultivation of the olive tree in the community of Aragon has had its historical repercussion.
Empeltre is a characteristic variety of Aragon, with more than 500 years of history.
Regular and productive, it is easy to pick up using agricultural machinery (umbrellas, hook vibrators, olive harvesters, trunk vibrators…)
At present, the Empeltre olive type has a growing interest thanks to its outstanding resistance to the Verticillium Dahliae soil fungus.
The Black olive is a variety with Sabiñán (Zaragoza) origin.
As a table olive, it is appreciated for its sweetness. It is usual to find olives in the form of dried black olives.
The olive tree adapts well to dry and limestone soils. In addition, it is tolerant of various diseases.
Olive types originating in Catalonia
The production of olive oil in the Autonomous Community of Catalonia is very similar to that of the Valencian Community. However, their olive varieties have a greater projection due to their good adaptation to the olive grove in hedge and other Spanish Communities.
Arbequina is an olive type that adapts very well to the conditions of the olive grove in hedge.
The Arbequina olive tree’s ability to produce high and constant crops, its reduced vigor and good tolerance to olive diseases. They have led to a spectacular boom in the Arbequina olive plantations, in parallel with the growth of the super high density olive grove.
Arbequina olives are used to produce olive oil.
Being at present, one of the most important olive oil varieties.
The Arbequina olive oil is of good quality, highlighting its sweet taste and fruity aroma, however, it has low resistance to oxidation.
The Arbosana olive variety is expanding thanks to its good adaptation to the hedge super high density olive farming.
From entry into very early production, it allows to achieve oil productions higher than 2t / ha.
Its olives harvest is 25% slower compared to Arbequina, an aspect that increases harvesting costs.
However, the sale price of olive oil is higher (about 15 cents), thanks to good features and higher oxidation resistance
Olive varieties of Navarra
Despite its low impact on the production of olive oil, Navarra has a very interesting variety due to its adaptation to the difficult climate of the area and the super high density olive grove.
The Olive Tree is the most typical olive variety in the Spanish provinces of Navarra, Álava and La Rioja.
Arróniz is an olive type that is very resistant to cold and withstands drought conditions well.
Its olive is of high yield and is destined to the oil production in oil mill.
Arróniz olive oil has good resistance against oxidation, being well valued commercially.
New olive classes obtained in Spain
Obtaining new olive classes seeks a perfect adaptation of the olive tree to the new cultivation techniques (super high density olive orchard).
Sikitita is an olive variety selected specifically for the conditions of super high density cultivation.
Obtaining is the result of research work carried out by the OCU and IFAPA.
At present, plantations of this variety have failed to reach the expected relevance after launch.
Perhaps, the good adaptation to the SHD olive grove, of traditional patent-free varieties, is partly to blame.
Other names of olives
The information shown here will be expanded with the definition and names of the olives most present in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Tunisia, Morocco…
List 1, Types of olives
Types of olives: Verdiell, Pascual, Posadas Beetle, Fina, Piga, Perafort, Serrana in the Maestrazgo, Berraqueña, Morisca de Pollença, Mollar de Cieza. Hojiblanca de Navarrés, Olivo de Maura, Early, Verdial de Ronda, Quartera, Llorón de Ronda, Carrasqueña, Chamomile Picúa, Picuda de Luis, Godellera, Padual, Verdial de Montefrío, Hendeño, Dulce de Ayora. Ojua, Chamomile Del Centro, Reixonenca, Picudo de Montoro, Blanca de Jaen, Zarzillero, Avellanejo, Penjoll, Verdal, Carrasqueño de Alburquerque, Raquelo, Alameño Blanco. Morruda del Palancia, Ivory, Rapasayo, Gorda Limoncillo, Tempranillo de Lucena, Azulejo, Petticoat of Sands, Millarenca, Millareja, Grossal, From the Cave, De Murir, Llimonenca, Macho de Jaén, Llorón de Iznalloz, Cazalla de la Sierra Black, Sabatera, Marons, Olaya.
Olive classes: list 2
Verdial de Huévar, Olive tree from Fuentebuena, Broad Leaf, Cordobés de La Aliseda, Buidiego, Cornezuelo de Jaén, Camomile of Pastrana, Cerruda, Birdhouse of Lucena, Camomile of Gorga.
White steppe weevil, Teta de Vaca, olive class Chamomile of the Image, Rojal de Valencia, Bramble, Dulzal de Carmona, Chapidorada, Picual de Estepa, Imperial, Enramonado, Solà, Negrillo de Andújar, Chesna, Carrasqueño de Lucena, Portuguese, Nevadillo de Santisteban Del Puerto, Cañivano Negro.
Varieties of Spanish olives Manzanillo de Santisteban Del Puerto, Ojo de Hare, Carrasqueño de Porcuna, Nation, Varudo, Mas Blanc, Manzanil de Piedrabuena. Snowy Curly, Verdilla de Calatayud, Casellera, Tempranillo de Calatayud, Vilafranca de Bonany, Sevillano de Jumilla, Negrillo de Arjona, Verdalon, Corralones, Olive of Mancha Real, Zorzariega.
Varieties of olives: List 3
Hundreds of olive varieties: Baix Fulla, Borriolenca, Machorrón, Caudiel Datilera, Torcío de Huelma, Jesús, Picual de Almería, Becarut, Cornicabra de Baza, Negrillo from Iznalloz, Local, Olivo Macho from Santisteban del Puerto, Chamomile from Abla Argudell, Fraga, Tomatillo, Escarabajillo, Sandalio, Aloreña de Iznalloz, Vilar, Camomile of Jaén, Alameño de Ronda, Machona, Royal de Villena, Chamomile Del Piquito, Negrillo de La Carlota, Horse, Vigor, Chamomile Vélez Rubio, Chamomile of Lorca.
Olive classes: Cornicabra Parda de Villena, Changlotera de Lliria, Redondilla de Logroño, Verdial de Velez Málaga, Corberana, Zorzaleño de Cazalla de La Sierra, Ullastre, Nevadillo Negro, Pico Limón de Orcera, Forastera de Artá , Piñonera, Olivo Macho de Posadas, Sevillano de Santisteban del Puerto, Carrasqueño de la Sierra, Corneja, Mollar de Córdoba, Redondilla de Hinojosa Del Duque, Albareta, Otos.
Olive types: List 4
Blanqueta Gorda, Verdala, Llavor del Port, Vinegar, Jaropo, Rotgeta, Verdial de Alcaudete, Royeta de Asque, Chamomile of Caudiel, Morejona, Genovesa, Corbella, Sepriana, Marteño de la Carlota, Chamomile of Hellín, Azul, Vaneta, Manzanenç, Freckled, Lemeño. Cañivano Blanco, Oliva, Queixal de Porc, Llorón de Atarfe, Zorzal, Lentisca, Morisca de Mancor.
Olive types: Round Negrillo, Hojudo, Aguilar, Monteaguda, Lemon Peak of Grazalema, Red Fruit Olive, Jewish, Gordera, Zarzariega, Carrasqueta de Ayora, Redondilla de Grazalema, Gordal de León, Lloma, Racimal de Jaén, Rojal de Alicante, Hojiblanca de Aracena, Camomile of Zahara, Camomile of Seville, Llei de Cadaqués, Morona de Castellón.
Nevado de Andújar, Pudriaco, Cordobes from Arroyo de La Luz, Fulla de Salze, Sevillana de Abla, Verdal (Valencia), Ubeda Beetle, Chorreao de Montefrio, Perillo de Jaén, Changlot Real de Enguera, Matías, Figuereta, Neral, Olivera de Nadal, Uncle Blas, Mollar Basto, Cabaret, Avercrín, Sollana, Sevillenca, Goat’s Claw, Algodonales weevil, Chorruo, Negrillo de Steppe, Patronet, Snowy Blue, Cuquellos, Chamomile Moliner, Alquecerana, Campanile, Jandra, Del Rosal, Ampolleta, Haddock, Goat’s Torcio, Nevadilla de Valdepeñas, Nevadillo de Madridejos, Alia, Gordal del Somontano, Water Camomile, Hel Gordal lín, Acebuchera.
List 5, kinds of olives:
Carrasquillo, Santiaga, Colchonudo, Manzanillera de Huércal Overa, Alhama de Granada Nevadillo, Tempranón, Lemongrass, Oliana, De la Lloma, Acebuche, Acebuche de Galicia, Acerenza, Alameño de Cabra, Alameño de Marchena, Alameño de Montilla, Algaiarens, Aloreña, Aloreña de Atarfe, Bitter, Arbequina, Asnal. Olive classes: Beniaya, Bical, Bitsyoac, Blancal, Blanqueta de Gorga, Blanquillo de Montefrío, Blanquillo de Setenil, Bodoquera, Brava, Budell, Callosina, Canetera, Cañaval, Carrasco, Carrasqueña de Cañada, Carrasqueño de Alcaudete, Carrasqueño de Cañaveral, Carrasqueño de Jumilla, Caspolina, Cerezuela, Choco, Cirujal, Cordobés de Brihuega.
More varieties of olives: Cornezuelo de Monterrubio, Cornicabra de Jerez de Los Caballeros, Cornicabra de Mérida, Cornicabra de Orcera, Cresta de Gallo, Cuquillo de Andilla, Curivell, Datilero, De Casta, De Sal, Del Toro, Dolça, Dotted, Egyptian, Atarfe Beetle, Outsider of Tortosa, Galega Vulgar, Galliner, Gatuno, Gileta, Gorla de Abla, Gordal de Archidona, Gordal de Vélez Rubio, Gordal Sevillana, Gordalejo, Gordalilla, Gordallera, Grosal de Albocácer, Grosal de Martorell.
List 6, varieties of olives:
Hundreds of varieties of olives: Grossal Vimbodí, Habichuelero de Baena, Habichuelero de Grazalema, Imperial Jaén, Jabaluna, Joanenca, Lechin de Estepa, Lechin de Sevilla, Lechin de Vélez Málaga, Llançanenca, Llumeta, Loaime, Lucio, Mallorquina, Mansa, Chamomile of Huelva, Chamomile from Montefrío, Camomile of Tortosa, Camomile of Almeria, Camomile of Ayora, Chamomile of Camporrobles, Chamomile of Guadix, Chamomile Prieta, Chamomile of Goat, Matihuela, Meloncillo, Menya, Mochuto, Moixentina, Mollasa, Morcal, Moron de Benisanó.
Varieties of olives: Morona, Morruda de Salinas, Morrut de Benlloch, Negral de Bierge, Negrillo of Lumbrales.
Black of the Carpio, Nevadillo Blanco de Jaén, Nevadillo Blanco de Lucena, Nevadillo de Loja, Snowy Basto, Olivo Macho de Guadix, Palomar, Palomillo, Panseñera, Turkey, Small Houses Ibáñez, Racimal, Cluster, Real Sevillana, Rechino, Rojal de Tarragona, Ropona, Rotja de Gorga, Royal de Calatayud, Royal de Cazorla, Rufina, Ruines, Saladora, Salgar Redondo, Sevillí, Sikitita, Sobrañal, Talayotica, Early of Montán, Tempranilla de Ayora, Tempranillo de Cazalla de la Sierra, Tempranillo de Llerena, Tempranillo de Yeste, Tetuda, Toruno, Uvera, Valentins, Vallesa, Vera, Verdal de Alhama, Verdial de Cádiz, V erdial de Setenil and Vinyols.
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