Selecting the most profitable olive tree variety is not a simple task. To choose the more productive olive varieties, we need to study the land, climate and the diseases of the olive grove that we will face.
As we explained in a recent publication about the olive grove climate, certain varieties better resist drought, cold and fungi that are common in humid climates.
To select the most profitable olive tree variety for our plantation, we will need to consider the following factors.
Variety of olive tree with more yield
The yield of an olive variety can vary according to multiple factors.
Genetic component: There are important differences in fat yield between olive varieties. For example, Picual, Cornicabra, Blanqueta and Verdial from Badajoz are high yielding varieties. On the other hand, Manzanilla Cacereña and Hojiblanca olive tree usually give low fat yields.
The weather: the energy value of olive oil is 8,840 Kcal / kg and is pure energy. Therefore, you need long, warm and bright days to get done. Regardless of the olive class, shady, cold and cloudy areas are not good areas for olive yield.
Nutritional deficiencies: Nitrogen, Potassium, Phosphorusand Calcium are the main nutrients of olive. Other micro-nutrients that may be lacking are Magnesium, Boron, Sulfur, Copper, Manganese, Iron and Zinc.
Maintaining the olive tree with a good nutritional status will improve the yield of the variety.
Olive tree fertilizer must be applied to correct nutritional deficiencies. Excesses are not advisable, they can induce toxicities or promote the appearance of pests. For example, excess nitrogen promotes the appearance of olive tree aphid, glyphs…
Toxicity: Some lands may contain heavy metals that reduce the productivity of the olive grove. For example, places where it has been paid with sewage sludge.
Water stress: Although the olive tree is a drought tolerant tree, the yields are diminished when rainfall is insufficient.
Application of treatments: Olive varieties that are more sensitive to diseases are more difficult to grow and generate additional costs for the farmer.
The above factors may make it profitable to plant olive trees in certain areas and instead in others it is unfeasible.
Cultivation area and olive diseases
Varieties of more productive olive trees in one area do not have to be in others.
The Verticilium is a soil fungus that affects certain olive varieties by reducing their productive capacity.
Land with previous cotton or sunflower crops can be seriously affected.
Costs of exploitation and harvest of olives
It is logical to think that the most profitable olive tree variety is not only the one that produces the most oil. An olive grove not only generates income, it also produces significant expenses. Collection, payment, application of treatments, pruning, irrigation, machinery (olive harvesters, vibrators, harvesters…)…
In the beginning the super high density olive grove (Arróniz, Arbosana, Arbequina, Koroneiki, Blanqueta, Cipressino, Sikitita…) may seem more profitable. However, it is more expensive to plant one hectare of crop (it is necessary to buy more seedlings, wooden stakes…) and you must have irrigation water to be productive. On the other hand, the fat yields are lower and the life of the plantations of olive groves is smaller. In addition, the grape harvesting are high-cost machines and we will normally depend on third parties to harvest our olive trees. It is true that the collection costs are lower and in the end you can achieve higher returns than in traditional olive groves. But they are olive groves more prone to diseases and in many areas it is not the most appropriate form of cultivation.
The best olive for oil will be the one that best suits our growing area. High production, low operating costs and constant harvest. These are the most important aspects to select the most profitable olive variety.
Varieties easy to collect, of regular harvest and with high yield fatty as Picual olive tree, allow the traditional olive grove of dry land to compete with other innovative cultivation techniques.
We have translated the information on our website from Spanish to English. Note that some words may have seen their meaning altered during their translation.