The olive tree climate requirements, significantly influences in the productive development of a particular olive variety.
Type of exploitation of cultivation: traditional, intensive olive grove, super high density in hedge … The olive grove of intensive surface ( 7×7, 7×6, 6×5 meters) is suitable in fresh dry areas or with the possibility of irrigation. However, in a dry climate and without the possibility of supporting irrigation, we will have to settle for a traditional plantation framework for olive tree (10×10, 12×12 meters).
Selected variety: some olive trees have adapted to hard climatic zones. Thanks to this, they can withstand the salinity in areas close to the sea, the drought of the desert and the cold mountain climate (800 meters). Also, there are olive varieties more resistant to diseases (olive fruit fly, repilo, Prays, cochinilla, Verticillium, algondocillo, glyphs, anthracnose, Xylella fastidiosa…).
How does the weather affect olive trees?
The productive capacity of the crop and the plantation frames are different in rainy and dry lands. In the dry climate terrain, the planting frames have to be more broad. Thus the olive tree has a larger surface to extract water from the soil. Obviously, the productive potential is greater in olive groves with a higher density of olive trees per hectare, as long as the water and nutritional status are adequate.
The olive tree in rainy climates
Although one might think that rainy weather is better for the olive tree than arid terrain. This is not entirely true, the olive tree suffers the fungal attack as the repilo and repilo leaden. Fungi proliferate especially in rainy climates, damaging the olive leaves, which end up dry in the soil. This supposes a considerable weakening for trees if phytosanitary treatments (very necessary ) are not carried out.
In addition to the fungi that affect the leaf, the rainy weather increases humidity and favors the activity of the olive fly.
Dry climates, olive tree behavior.
The olive is one of the crops that best behavior has against extreme drought climatic conditions.
Not surprisingly, we can find ancient olive groves over arid or desert areas. However, excessively dry climates are also not good for the olive tree.
Although there are varieties with high drought resistance such as Hojiblanca, Morisca, Lechin de Granada, Sfax Chemlali, Picholine Moracaine, Verdial, Cornicabra, Biancolilla, Blanqueta… Excessively dry conditions reduce the growth of the tree, reduce the harvest and favor the regularity of bearing.
Relationship between soil and climate
In addition to weather conditions, the soil type plays a very important role.
Structure: soils are classified by the size of the particles that compose it. They can be clayey, loamy, loamy, loamy and sandy. This structure marks the capacity of the land to store rainwater and is necessary to calculate the water resources from which the olive is available.
There are soil fungi, especially harmful to the olive in humid climates and difficult to treat.
Armillaria spp. Puddle the main roots of the olive tree, the fungus develops in wet soils, very clayey and has a watery character. This fungus can cause the death of the olive tree.
Verticillium Dahliae: It is also known for Verticilosis, the fungus is found especially present in areas with previous cotton or sunflower crops. In these areas, it is opting to plant Verticillium resistant olive varieties ( Changlot Real, Dolce Agogia, Empeltre, Frantoio, Oblonga…).
Vitality of the olive tree and climate conditions
Olive pruning : it is essential to maintain a proportional cup volume to Water resources provided by the existing climate. The higher the density of the olive tree, the greater the need for water. Therefore, an excess of glass in the dry periods is detrimental to the vitality of the olive tree.
Nutrition or olive tree fertilizer: A correct covert wallet, foliar or mixed application that allows to correct the deficiencies of the olive. This helps to improve the vitality of the olive tree and with it its capacity to adapt to the climate, diseases, water stress…
As you have seen, the weather affects the olive grove in different ways. Before planting, it is convenient to know the existing olive varieties and their ability to adapt to our cultivation environment.
We have translated the information on our website from Spanish to English. Note that some words may have seen their meaning altered during their translation.