Verticillium wilt olive tree is a disease currently expanding. It has a difficult solution and generates a growing concern in the olive sector. Although there are some olive varieties resistant verticilosis, most of They are sensitive and very affected by the disease. Being a soil fungus, the treatment of Verticillium is virtually impossible and the main measures are aimed at preventing its spread.
The Verticillium Dahliae, also known as verticilosis, is the branch of the most typical Verticillium in Spain. The fungus attacks strongly and considerably reduces the productivity of the affected areas. The presence of the inoculum on the ground is estimated at 14 years.
In addition to affecting the olive tree, Verticillosis also causes damage to other permanent crops such as almond or pistachio.
How to combat olive verticillium wilt olive tree?
Because the elimination of soil fungi is complex and expensive. Techniques such as soil solarization help reduce the fungus inoculum, although its effectiveness is not complete. Because the fungus can survive for more than 10 years in the soil, planting varieties and resistant patterns is the most commonly used technique to tolerate the disease.
Where does Verticillium Dahliae work?
The Verticillium of the olive tree is usually located in new plantations, where had previously been cultivated sunflower, cotton, tomato, eggplant … The new olive seedlings (with less than 10 years), are more sensitive to Verticilosis, getting to dry by Complete to the olive tree.
It is estimated that currently in Andalucía, some 400,000 hectares are affected more or less intensely by the fungus of Verticium Dahliae. Given the difficulty of carrying out treatments and developing an effective fight against the fungus, the use of olive varieties resistant to verticillosis of the olive tree is becoming widespread.
At today, investigations are underway to obtain fungus-resistant rootstocks. After the search for genetic material in areas of high infestation with Verticillium. Acebuche clones with high resistance to Verticillium Dahliae have been selected. They have already begun to market some of these hopeful patterns, registered with the names: Vetirés and Vetinmún.
Level of resistance of olive varieties to Verticillium
The resistance to Verticillium wilt olive tree of olive varieties is scaled on four levels: resistant, moderately resistant, sensitive and very sensitive.
Olive trees resistant to Verticillium wilt or Verticillosis
Olive varieties can coexist under the presence of Verticillium in the soil, without presenting symptoms of the disease.
Olive plants with moderate resistance to Verticillium
They are those varieties that can withstand a certain presence of the fungus without showing apparent symptoms of the disease.
Olive varieties sensitive to Verticillium or wilt olive tree
Its production and development will be limited in areas with the presence of the fungus.
Amigdaloia, Arbosana , Ascolana Tenera , Azapa, Coratina, Dokkar, Beetle from Úbeda, Kalogerida, Maurino , Black Nevadillo, Arjona Negrillo, Lemon Peak de Grazalema, Royal de Cazorla , Vallesa, Zarza, Nocellara from Belize, Farga.
Olive trees very sensitive to Verticillium
The olive plant will see its development very limited in Veticilium infected areas. In these cases, premature death of olive trees is very likely.
Arbequina , Ayvalik, Azul, Borriolenca, Bouteillan, Callosina, Carolea , Carrasqueño de Lucena, Chemlal de Kabilye, Chorruo de Castro del Río, Corbella, Cobrancosa , Cornicabra . Dulzal, Dulzal de Carmona, Fulla de Salce, Gordal de Hellin, Hendeño, Hojiblanca , Imperial de Jaén, Leccino , Lechin de Granada , Manzanilla, Chamomile Chamomile , Manzanilla del Piquito, Seville Chamomile . Megaritiki, Meski, Morisca, Morona, Nabali, Black , Black del Carpio, Nevadillo Blanco de Jaén, Ocal , Birdhouse , Pendolino , Picual , Picudo , Valanolia, Verdial de Alcaudete, Villalonga , Blanqueta, Verdial de Badajoz.
Olive Verticillium: Symptoms of the infection
Usually, the disease develops with don syndromes, known for stroke and slow decay.
The stroke acts fast, verticillium wilt entire branches or even the tree.
The olive leaves are dried and rolled up without falling.
The slow decay is less virulent and although the symptoms are similar, it only affects a part of the branch.
Verticillium of the olive tree treatment
In view of the impossibility of an effective treatment against olive verticillosis or Verticillium wilt olive tree, the following sanitary control measures are carried out to help prevent its diffusion.
1.- Pruning, burning and replacing the affected olive trees by resistant varieties or rootstocks. Avoid crushing the remains of infected branches.
2.- Avoid handling contaminated soil by the fungus (plowing the olive groves helps to expand the Verticillium Dahliae fungus). It is also not good to pay with manure or olive leaves if they have not been previously composted.
3.- Use of infection-free tools. To do this, tools, tractors and tools must be cleaned with 50% diluted bleach.
4.- Water with uncontaminated water resources by the fungus.
5.- Make plantations with certified nursery olive trees that assure us non-infected Verticillium olive plants.
We have translated the information on our website from Spanish to English. Note that some words may have seen their meaning altered during their translation.