Maxma 14 is a American Graft Holder obtained by Lyle Brooks in Oregon (Forest Grove Nursery University). The Maxma rootstock 14 is an interspecific hybrid obtained by the crossing between Prunus Mahaleb and Merisier (Prunus Avium).
Although it was obtained in United States, the Maxma 14 rootstock was infected with virus and was discarded due to poor performance. However, the French editor Delbard cleared it of viruses. Delbard made the record of Maxma 14 in 1987 under the name Brokforest. Currently, the commercial name of the virus-free Maxma 14 rootstock is Maxma Delbard® 14. According to data from the European registry, the patent on the rootstock Brokforest has expired in France on 03/21/2017.
Characteristics of the Maxma 14 rootstock (Maxma Delbard® 14)
Vigor: The rootstock Maxma 14 is of vigor medium around 70% of Saint Lucia 64. If we compare it with the vigor of Avium, Maxma 14 reaches a 50-60% of this. Its vigor is reduced when it enters production, and severe pruning is necessary.
Compatibility: The Maxma 14 rootstock is compatible with the sour cherry (Guindo) and the majority of the varieties of sweet cherry.
Root: the rootstock for cherry trees Maxma Delbard® 14 does not produce sierpes and has good anchorage. It is sensitive to drought (requires irrigation) and has some moderate sensitivity to suffocation.
Propagation: This well-known cherry rootstock spreads well using the “in vitro or micropropagation” technique.
Plantation frame: This cherry rootstock supports moderate density plantations with 5×2.5 meter frames in Chile. In the fertile lands of the United States it is recommended to plant at 6×5 meters. Maxma 14 is planted in Chile at an approximate density of 800 plants per hectare. For United States, planting density is reduced to the environment of 350 plants per hectare. In Spain, experimental plantations have been carried out at 6×4 meters with good productive results.
Precocity: The Maxma 14 rootstock is early, reaches full production at the sixth year, only one year after Gisela 6.
Productivity: Maxma Delbard® 14 has a productive capacity that is very high. Although producers prefer to use Maxma 14 together with self-fertile and productive cherry varieties, it can also be used with unproductive varieties.
Pruning : It is obliged from the fifth year (When planting enters full production).
Resistance: Maxma 14 is a ferrous chlorosis-tolerant rootstock. It is resistant to the nematode of the gills (tuberculosis) but is susceptible to the damaging nematode. It is Agrobacterium tolerant and there are some cases of Phytophthora, being moderately sensitive.
Curiosities about the Maxma 14 rootstock
According to studies in Chile, Maxma 14 is slightly surpassed by the rootstock Gisela 6 in precocity, production and has a similar caliber (In good soil ). In Chile, the trend is a reduction in sales of the Maxma 14 rootstock compared to the increase in Gisela 6.
Conclusion: It is an excellent rootstock for moderate-density plantations and good soils.
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